Akatsuki-class destroyer (1931)
|Preceded by:||Fubuki class|
|Succeeded by:||Hatsuharu class|
|Displacement:||1,750 long tons (1,778 t)|
|Length:||118.5 m (388 ft 9 in)|
|Beam:||10.4 m (34 ft 1 in)|
|Draft:||3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)|
|Speed:||38 knots (44 mph; 70 km/h)|
The Akatsuki-class destroyer (暁型駆逐艦 Akatsuki-gata kuchikukan) was a class of four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Almost identical in appearance to the previous Fubuki class, they are regarded as a sub-class by many authors, partly because the Imperial Japanese Navy itself kept the improvements made a secret, and did not officially designate these four destroyers as a separate class.
After a number of years of operational experience with the Fubuki class, the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff issued requirements for four additional Special Type (特型 Tokugata) destroyers, with a maximum speed of 39 knots (72 km/h), range of 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h), and armed with Type 8 torpedoes. These destroyers were intended to operate with the new series of fast and powerful new cruisers also under consideration as part of a program intended to give the Imperial Japanese Navy a qualitative edge with the world's most modern ships. The new vessels were built from 1931-1933.
The Akatsuki vessels had larger boilers and a narrower fore funnel than the previous Fubukis, and internally the number of boilers was reduced from four to three due to improvements in boiler design and efficiency. Other improvements over the Fubuki class included a splinter-proof torpedo launcher-turret, which allowed the torpedo launcher tubes to be reloaded in action.
However, the Akatsuki class shared a number of inherent design problems with the Fubuki class. The large amount of armament combined with a smaller hull displacement than in the original design created issues with stability. After the Tomozuru Incident, in which the basic design of many Japanese warships was called into question, additional ballast had to be added. In the Fourth Fleet Incident, during which a typhoon damaged virtually every ship in the Fourth Fleet, issues with the longitudinal strength of the Akatsuki class hull was discovered. As a result, all vessels were reconstructed in 1935-1937. This increased the displacement to 2050 tons standard tons and over 2400 tons full load. The rebuild reduced the top speed slightly.
The main battery consisted of six Type 3 127 mm 50 caliber naval guns, mounted in pairs in three weather-proof, splinter-proof, gas-tight gun turrets . Ammunition was brought up on hoists from magazines located directly underneath each gun turret, which had a greater rate of fire than other contemporary destroyers, where ammunition was typically manually loaded. The mounts could elevate each gun separately to 75° elevation for AA use. Originally Type 8 torpedoes were carried, arranged in three triple mountings. These were later replaced with the famous Type 93 "Long Lance" oxygen-propelled torpedoes during World War II.
List of Ships
Type III (Akatsuki)
|暁||Akatsuki||Sasebo Naval Arsenal, Japan||17 February 1930||7 May 1932||30 November 1932||Sunk in action off Guadalcanal [09.17S, 159.56E] on 13 November 1942; struck 15 December 1942|
|響||Hibiki||Maizuru Naval Arsenal, Japan||21 February 1930||16 June 1932||31 March 1933||surrendered 5 October 1945; prize of war to USSR on 5 July 1947; sunk as target in 1970s|
|雷||Ikazuchi||Uraga Dock Company, Japan||7 March 1930||22 October 1931||15 August 1932||torpedoed W of Guam [10.13N, 143.51E] on 13 April 1944; struck 10 June 1944|
|電||Inazuma||Fujinagata Shipyards, Japan||7 March 1930||25 February 1932||15 November 1932||Torpedoed W of Celebes [05.08N, 119.38E] on 14 May 1944; struck 10 June 1944|
- Evans, David (1979). Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7.
- Brown, David (1990). Warship Losses of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-914-X.
- Howarth, Stephen (1983). The Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895–1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8.
- Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (1958). The Struggle for Guadalcanal, August 1942 – February 1943, vol. 5 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-58305-7.
- Nelson, Andrew N. (1967). Japanese–English Character Dictionary. Tuttle. ISBN 0-8048-0408-7.
- Watts, Anthony J (1967). Japanese Warships of World War II. Doubleday. ASIN B000KEV3J8.
- Whitley, M J (2000). Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-521-8.
- Nishida, Hiroshi. "Materials of IJN: Akatsuki class destroyer". Imperial Japanese Navy.
- Globalsecurity.org. "IJN Akatsuki class destroyers".
- Combined Fleet.com. "Nihon Kaigun: Akatsuki Class".
- Pacific War Online Encyclopedia