|Native to||Canada, United States|
|Region||Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, Cattaraugus Reservation|
Cayuga (In Cayuga Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’) is a Northern Iroquoian language of the Iroquois Proper (also known as "Five Nations Iroquois") subfamily, and is spoken on Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, Ontario, by around 240 Cayuga people, and on the Cattaraugus Reservation, New York, by less than 10.
Use and language revitalization
Six Nations Polytechnic in Ohsweken, Ontario offers Ogwehoweh language Diploma and Degree Programs in Mohawk or Cayuga. Immersion classes in Cayuga are taught at Gaweni:yo High School, on the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve. The Cayuga language maintenance project was funded by the Canadian Government in 2010, and is being "carried out in partnership with the Woodland Cultural Centre." A Cayuga e-dictionary can be downloaded for PC or MAC, free of charge.
There were at one time two distinct dialects of Cayuga. One is still spoken in Ontario, the other, called "Seneca-Cayuga," was spoken in Oklahoma until the 1980s.
There are two varieties of Cayuga. The Lower Cayuga dialect is spoken by those of the Lower End of the Six Nations and the Upper Cayuga are from the Upper End. The main difference between the two is that the Lower Cayuga use the sound [ɡj] and the Upper use the sound [dj]. Also, pronunciation differs between individual speakers of Cayuga and their preferences.
There are 5 oral vowels in Cayuga, as well as four long vowels, [iː], [aː], [oː], and [eː]. Cayuga also has 3 nasalized vowels, [ẽ], [õ], and [ã]. Both [u] and [ã] are rare sounds in Cayuga. Sometimes, the sounds [u] and [o] are used interchangeably according to the speaker's preference. After long [eː] and [oː], an [n] sound can be heard, especially when before [t], [d], [k], [ɡ], [ts], and [j].
Vowels can be devoiced allophonically, indicated in the orthography used at Six Nations by underlining them.
|Mid||/e/||/eː/||/ẽ/ /ẽː/||/o/||/oː/||/õ/ /õː/|
Following are some words that demonstrate what some vowels sound like when they occur before [h]. [ehaʔ], [ẽhaʔ], [ohaʔ], and [õha], [e] and [ẽ] sound like a whispered [j], and [o] and [õ] sound like a whispered [w]. Furthermore, the [ã] in [ẽhãʔ] and [õhã] is nasalized because of [ẽ] and [õ]. The consonant before the nasalized vowel becomes voiceless. Also, odd-numbered vowels followed by [h] are devoiced, while even-numbered vowels followed by [h] are not.
The first sound in each pair is voiceless.
Allophonic variations that occur in Cayuga:
/d/ becomes devoiced [t] before devoiced consonants. The sound [d] does not exist word-finally.
/a/ becomes devoiced [k] before devoiced consonants.
/s/ becomes [ʃ] before [j] or [ɹ].
/dʒ/ becomes [dz] and [ds] before [ɡ] and [o], respectively. Speakers may use [dz] and [ds] interchangeably according to the speaker’s preference.
/w/ can be voiceless (sounds like [h] followed by [w]).
/j/ can also be voiceless (sounds like [h] followed by [j])
The vowel is voiced when it and a following /h/ are in an even-numbered syllable and in “absolute word-initial position or in word-final position, or preceded by another [h].” For example:
[ʃehóːwih] 'tell her'
[ehjáːdõh] 'she writes'
Most words have accented vowels, resulting in a higher pitch. Where the stress is placed is dependent on the “position of the word in the phrase.” The default location for stress for nouns is on final vowel. “In words that are at the end of a phrase, accent falls on the 2nd last vowel, the 3rd last vowel, or occasionally, on the 4th vowel from the end of the word.” For example:
Cayuga is a polysynthetic language. As with other Iroquoian languages, the verbal template contains an optional prepronominal prefix, a pronominal prefix (indicating agreement), an optional incorporated noun, a verbal root, and an aspectual suffix. The nominal template consists of an agreement prefix (usually neuter for non-possessed nouns), the nominal root, and a suffix.
- Cayuga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Cayuga". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Six Nations Polytechnic
- "School fights to revive native Canadian language". Reuters. 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - The CURA Project". Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- "Government of Canada Announces New Research Project to Revitalize Cayuga Language at Six Nations of the Grand River Reserve, Ontario". Marketwire. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - Cayuga e-dictionary (Free Download)". Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- Froman, Frances, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye and Carrie Dyck. English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002, p. xii
- Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
- Froman, 2002, p. xxxi
- Froman, 2002, p. xxx-xxxii
- Froman, 2002, p.xxxii
- Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi-xxxviii
- Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
- Froman, 2002, p. xxxiii
- Froman, Frances, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye and Carrie Dyck. English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
- Rijkhoff, Jan (2002). The Noun Phrase. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-823782-0.
- Henry, Reginald and Marianne Mithun. Watęwayęstanih: A Cayuga Teaching Grammar. Brantford, Ontario: Woodland Indian Cultural Educational Centre.
- Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy (COOL)
- Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy (COOL)(NEW)
- Cayuga at LanguageGeek
- Ohwęjagehká: Ha’degaénage: Cayuga
- Sgę́nǫ’ Ga[?hnawiyo’geh! - How to say "hello" in Cayuga]
- "School fights to revive native Canadian language". Reuters. 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- "Government of Canada Announces New Research Project to Revitalize Cayuga Language at Six Nations of the Grand River Reserve, Ontario". Marketwire. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- OLAC resources in and about the Cayuga language