History of Filipino Americans

Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, and for a period the History of the Philippines merged with that of the United States. After the independence of the Philippines from the United States, Filipino Americans continued to grow in population and had events that are associated to them.

Immigration history

Researchers have looked upon the patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States and have recognized four significant waves. The first was connected to the period when the Philippines was part of New Spain and later the Spanish East Indies; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would migrate to North America.

The second wave was during the period when the Philippines were a territory of the United States; as U.S. Nationals, Filipinos were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by the Immigration Act of 1917 that restricted other Asians.[1] This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation.[2][3][4] Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayan.[1] This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; thefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States.[5] During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans were also affected, losing jobs, and being the target of race based violence.[6] This wave of immigration ended due to the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, which restricted immigration to 50 persons a year.[1]

Later, due to basing agreements with the Philippines, Filipinos were allowed to enlist in the United States Navy, this continued a practice of allowing Filipinos to serve in the Navy that began in 1901.[7] Before the end of World War I Filipino sailors were allowed to serve in a number of ratings, however due to a rules change during the interwar period Filipino sailors were restricted to officers' stewards and mess attendants.[8] This ended in 1946, following the independence of the Philippines from the United States, but resumed in 1947 due to language inserted into the Military Base Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines.[7] In 1973, Admiral Zumwalt removed the restrictions on Filipino sailors, allowing them to enter any rate they qualified for;[9] in 1976 there were about 17,000 Filipinos serving in the United States Navy;[7] they created a distinct Navy-related Filipino American immigrant community.[10]

The third wave of immigration followed the events of World War II. Filipinos who had served in World War II had been given the option of becoming U.S. Citizens, and many took the opportunity,[11] upwards of 10,000 according to Barkan.[12][13] Filipina War brides were allowed to immigrate to the United States due to War Brides Act and Fiancée Act, with approximately 16,000 Filipinas entering the United States in the years following World War II.[14] This immigration was not limited only to Filipinas and children; between 1946 and 1950, there was recorded one Filipino Groom granted immigration under the War Brides Act.[15] A source of immigration was opened up with the Luce-Celler Act of 1946 that gave the Philippines a quota of 100 persons a year; yet records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 and 1965.[16] This wave ended in 1965.[1]

The fourth and present wave of immigration began in 1965 with passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 into law. It ended national quotas into law, and provided an unlimited number of visas for family reunification.[1] By the 1970s and 1980s Filipina wives of service members reach annual rates of five to eight thousand.[17] Navy based immigration stopped with the expiration of the military bases agreement in 1992;[18] yet it continues in a more limited fashion.[19] Many Filipinas of this new wave of migration have migrated here as professionals due to a shortage in qualified nurses.[20]


José Rizal around the time of his visit to the United States
Philippine Village at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901
Company labor camp for Filipino farm laborers on Ryer Island in 1940
President Truman and members of his party pose on the north steps of the "Little White House," the President's residence in Potsdam, Germany during the Potsdam Conference, with their Filipino stewards.
The building where Domingo and Viernes were assassinated.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Yo, Jackson (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
  2. "Filipino American History". Northern California Pilipino American Student Organization. California State University, Chico. January 29, 1998. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines.
  3. "Learn about our culture". Filipino Student Association. Saint Louis University. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines.
  4. Jackson, Yo (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8. Retrieved June 7, 2011. Included in this group were Pensionados, Sakadas, Alaskeros, and Manongs primarily from the Illocos and Visayas regions.
  5. Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved April 27, 2011. They were, however, officially under the protection of the United States, which governed the Philippines, and herein they took a distinctive characteristics. First of all, they had been inculcated in the Philippines, through the American-sponsored education system and through the general point of view of a colonial society strongly under American influence, in the belief that all men were created equal, in fact and under the law, and that included them. Second, they spoke English, excellently in many cases, thanks once again to the American sponsored educational system in the Philippines. Filipino migrant workers did not see themselves as aliens.
  6. Austin, Joe; Michael Willard (1998). Generations of youth: youth cultures and history in twentieth-century America. New York: NYU Press. pp. 118–135. ISBN 978-0-8147-0646-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  7. 1 2 3 Hooker, J.S. (July 7, 2006). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Navy Department Library. United States Navy. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
  8. Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780520235274. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  9. Ramon J. Farolan (July 21, 2003). "From Stewards to Admirals: Filipinos in the U.S. Navy". Asian Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  10. Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780520235274. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  11. 1 2 "California's Filipino Infantry". The California State Military Museum. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  12. Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-313-29742-7. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  13. Barkman, Elliot R. (1983). "Whom Shall We Integrate?: A Comparative Analysis of the Immigration and Naturalization Trends of Asians Before and After the 1965 Immigration Act (1951–1978)". Journal of American Ethnic History. University of Illinois Press. 3 (1): 29–57. JSTOR 27500294.
  14. Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  15. Daniels, Roger (2010). Immigration and the legacy of Harry S. Truman: Volume 6 of Truman legacy series. Truman State Univ Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-931112-99-4. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  16. Segal, Uma Anand (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-231-12082-1. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  17. Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press. p. 14. ISBN 1-4129-0556-7. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  18. MC3 Rialyn Rodrigo (March 1, 2009). "Philippine Enlistment Program Sailors Reflect on Heritage". Navy News Service. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  19. Service Officer (October 8, 2008). "USN Recruiters to Visit Philippines October 09, 2008". United States Military Activities Office Davao City, Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  20. Daniels, Roger (2002). Coming to America: a history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. HarperCollins. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-06-050577-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  21. "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
  22. Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
  23. Kevin Starr (22 June 2011). Coast of Dreams. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-307-79526-7.
    Sobredo, James (July 1999). "Filipino Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, Stockton, and Seattle". Asian American Studies. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  24. Rodis, Rodel (26 October 2013). "The Second Coming of Filipinos to America". Inquirer. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  25. Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved May 19, 2011. Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America.
  26. Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved May 19, 2011. These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763.
  27. "Original Settlers (Pobladores) of El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, 1781". laalmanac.com. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  28. Cordova, Fred (1998). "The Legacy: Creating a Knowledge Base on Filipino Americans". In Pang, Valerie Ooka; Lilly Cheng, Li-Rong. Struggling to Be Heard: The Unmet Needs of Asian Pacific American Children. Social Context of Education. SUNY Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780791438398. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
  29. Nancy Dingler (June 23, 2007). "Filipinos made immense contributions in Vallejo". Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  30. "Manila Village". Filipino American Heritage Website. Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2011. On July 24, 1870, the Spanish-speaking residents of St. Malo founded the first Filipino social club called Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispano Filipinos to provide relief and support for the group's members, including the purchasing of a burial places for their deceased.
  31. Bureau of Naval Personnel (October 1976). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
    David M. Reimers (2005). "Asians in Hawaii and the United States". Other Immigrants: The Global Origins of the American People. NYU Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8147-7535-6.
    United States; United States. Judge-advocate-general's dept. (Navy); United States. Navy. Office of the Judge Advocate General (1922). "General Order No. 40". Compilation of navy: annotated. [Letters from the acting secretary of the navy transmitting pursuant to Senate resolution no. 262, Sixty-third Congress, a compilation of laws relating to the navy, Navy department, and Marine corps, in force March 4, 1921, with annotations, showing how such laws have been construed and applied by the Navy department, the comptroller of the Treasury, the attorney general, or the courts ... ]. Govt. print. off. p. 856.
  32. Bevis, Teresa Brawqner; Christopher J. Lucas (2007). International students in American colleges and universities: a history. New York: Macmillan. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-230-60011-9. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  33. Annual report of the Secretary of War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1915. p. 11. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  34. Marc Lawrence. "Filipino Martial Arts in the United States" (PDF). South Bay Filipino Martial Arts Club. Retrieved April 27, 2011. In 1910 the U.S. began sending one outstanding Filipino soldier per year to West Point, and by 1941 some of these men had risen to the rank of senior officers.
  35. Elizabeth Reis (17 January 2012). American Sexual Histories. John Wiley & Sons. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-4443-3929-1.
    Peggy Pascoe (2009). What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-19-509463-3.
  36. "Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc.". Retrieved March 2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  37. "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia Inc.". Asian Journal. February 1, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012. The organization drafted its constitution and by-laws and became charted in the city of Philadelphia and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania in 1917. FAAPI is the oldest ongoing organization of Filipinos and Filipino-Americans in the Delaware Valley and perhaps in the U.S.
  38. Budnick, Rich (2005). Hawaii's Forgotten History: 1900-1999: The Good...The Bad...The Embarrassing. Honolulu, Hawaii: Aloha Press. p. 31. ISBN 0944081045. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  39. 1 2 "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  40. 1 2 3 Lott, Juanita Tamayo (2006). Common destiny: Filipino American generations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7425-4651-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  41. 1 2 3 Lucky Meisenheimer, MD. "Pedro Flores". nationalyoyo.org. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  42. Jamieson, Stuart Marshall (1946). Labor unionism in American agriculture. Ayer Publishing. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-405-09508-5. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  43. "Remembering the Watsonville Riots". modelminority.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  44. Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 451. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  45. Perez, Frank Ramos; Perez, Leatrice Bantillo (1994). "The Long Struggle for Acceptance: Filipinos in San Joaquin County" (PDF). The San Joaquin Historian. The San Joaquin County Historical Society. 8 (4): 3–18. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  46. Min, Pyong-Gap (2006), Asian Americans: contemporary trneds and issues, Pine Forge Press, p. 189, ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5
  47. Irving G. Tragen (September 1944). "Statutory Prohibitions against Interracial Marriage". California Law Review. 32 (3): 269–280. doi:10.2307/3476961., citing Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  48. Association of American Law Schools (1950). Selected essays on family law. Foundation Press. pp. 279. The second disttinct change came in 1933 when the word "Malay" was added to the prohibited class,. Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  49. University of California, Berkeley. School of Law; University of California, Berkeley School of Jurisprudence (1944). California law review. School of Jurisprudence of the University of California. pp. 272. All marriages of white persons with Negros, Mongolians, members of the Malay race, of mulattos are illegal and void.
  50. "The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act)". Chanrobles Law Library. March 24, 1934. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  51. "Filipino Americans". Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  52. Mark L. Lazarus III. "An Historical Analysis of Alien Land Law: Washington Territory & State 1853–1889". Seattle University School of Law. Seattle University. Archived from ""washington+supreme+Court"+unconstitutional+Filipino+"Alien+Land+Law"" the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011. Finally, the only other reported case on alien land rights went before the Washington Supreme Court in early 1941. The court held that a 1937 amendment to the alien land law was unconstitutional inasmuch as it might disable citizens of the Philippines.30'
  53. Espiritu, Yen le (1993). Asian American panethnicity: bridging institutions and identities. Temple University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56639-096-5. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
  54. Takaki, Ronald (1998). Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian Americans (PDF). Little, Brown. p. 591. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2011. Filipinos wore buttons saying, 'I am Filiipino'."
  55. "An Untold Triumph". Asian American Studies. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved April 27, 2011. Facing discrimination and hard times here in California and all along the west coast, thousands of Filipinos worked in agricultural fields, in the service industry, and in other low paying jobs. The war provided the opportunity for Filipinos to fight for the United States and prove their loyalty as Americans.
  56. 1 2 Espiritu, Yen Le (1995). Filipino American lives. Temple University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  57. "Treaty of General Relations Between the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines. Signed at Manila, on 4 July 1946" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (pdf) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  58. Bonus, Rick (2000). Locating Filipino Americans: ethnicity and the cultural politics of space. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-56639-779-7. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  59. "20th Century – Post WWII". Asian American Studies. Dartmouth College. Retrieved April 27, 2011. Filipino Naturalization Act grants US citizenship to filipinos who had arrived before March 24, 1943.
  60. "Perez vs. Sharp – End to Miscegenation Laws in California". Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  61. Lott, Juanita Tamayo (2006). Common destiny: Filipino American generations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-7425-4651-6. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  62. "Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor". Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  63. Pilipino American Alliance ~ UC Berkeley Archived March 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  64. Gonzalves, Theodore S. (2009). The Day the Dancers Stayed: Performing in the Filipino/American Diaspora. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-59213-729-9. Retrieved April 30, 2011. Many Filipino student organizations have histories that coincide with the political awakenings of students on college campuses in the late 1960s and early 1970s, For example, San Francisco Statue University's Pilipino American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE) was founded in 1967; the Pilipino American Alliance (PAA) at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, was funded in 1969; Samahang Pilipino at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), was founded in 1972; and Kababayan at the University of California, Irvine, was founded in 1974.
  65. "First Fil-Am elected in the US Mainland: Larry Asera". Asian Journal. August 19, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  66. "Filipino labor activists Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo are slain in Seattle on June 1, 1981". historylink.org. Archived from the original on http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=412. Retrieved 2007-12-07. Check date values in: |archive-date= (help)
  67. Sterngass, Jon (2006). Robert D. Johnston, ed. Filipino Americans. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  68. "Sunday, 24 April 2011 Login Edit Feedback Historic Filipinotown With Mural/ Adobo Nation's La Chika". TFC. Retrieved January 2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  69. "Famous Fil Am Muralist Returns to Filipinotown". INQUIRER. June 22, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  70. "Bulosan Memorial Exhibit". Retrieved October 1999. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  71. "Major Commissioned Murals: The Price of Freedom". |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  72. Gutierrez, Ricardo (April 10, 2009). "AMEDDC&S NCOs honor WWII heroes". Fort Sam Houston. United States Army. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  73. Wilcox, Laura (May 24, 2008). "Veteran lobbies for Bataan Death March memorial". The Herald-Dispatch. Champion Publishing Inc. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  74. "Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003". Philippine Government, Bureau of Immigration. August 29, 2003. Archived from the original on February 8, 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  75. "Implementing Rules and Regulations for R.A. 9225". Philippine Government, Bureau of Immigration. Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  76. "109th Congress, H.CON.RES.218, Recognizing the centennial of sustained immigration from the Philippines to the United States ...". U.S. Library of Congress. December 15, 2005. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
  77. "The Filipino Century Beyond Hawaii" (PDF). Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa. December 13–17, 2006. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  78. "Garcetti Unveils Nation's First Filipino Veterans Memorial" (PDF). Eric Garcetti, President, los Angeles city council. November 13, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  79. Montoya, Carina Monica (2009). Los Angeles's Historic Filipinotown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7385-6954-3.
  80. Johnson, Julie (August 9, 2008). "Stockton native to lead church". Recordnet.com.
  81. "AUSTRIA STATEMENT FOR EVENT AT PHILIPPINES EMBASSY". Official House of Representatives website of Rep. Steve Austria. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  82. "Mona Pasquil named interim Lt. Governor of CA". Asian Pacific Americans for Progress. November 6, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
  83. Pimentel, Joseph (9 October 2013). "California writing Filipino Americans into the history books". Public Radio International. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Retrieved 23 April 2015.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/16/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.