One of the world's primary language families
kee – Eastern
kjq – Western
Pre-contact distribution of Keresan languages
Keresan //, also Keres //, is a dialect cluster spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. The varieties of each of the seven Keres pueblos are mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. There are significant differences between the Western and Eastern groups, which are commonly counted as separate languages.
- Eastern Keres: total of 4,580 speakers (1990 census)
- Western Keres: total of 3,391 speakers (1990 census)
Keres is a language isolate. Edward Sapir grouped it together with a Hokan–Siouan stock. Morris Swadesh suggested a connection with Wichita. Joseph Greenberg grouped Keres with Siouan, Yuchi, Caddoan, and Iroquoian in a superstock called Keresiouan. None of the proposals has gained the consensus of linguists.
Labial Dental Palatal Retroflex Dental/Palatal Velar Plosive unaspirated p t tʃ tʂ ts k aspirated pʰ tʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ tsʰ kʰ glottalized pʼ tʼ tʃʼ (tʂʼ) tsʼ kʼ Fricative plain s ʃ ʂ glottalized (sʼ) ʃʼ ʂʼ Sonorant plain w r j glottalized wˀ rˀ jˀ plain, nasal m n glottalized, nasal mˀ nˀ
The consonant *tʂʼ only surfaces as an alternate form of underlying *tʂ or *tʂʰ.
Basic form Aspirated Glottalized Fronted t tʰ t’ tʃ tʰ tʃʰ t’ tʃ’ k kʰ k’ ts kʰ tsʰ k’ ts’ tʂ – tʂʼ t tʂʰ tʂʰ tʂʼ tʃʰ
Acoma Keres has a relatively complex tone system.
Due to tone deafness, Franz Boas encountered difficulties studying tonal languages such as Laguna; however, after he left, his student Elsie Clews Parsons stayed behind and documented Laguna language and stories.
The structure is C(C)V(V).
History and usage
Keres was one of the seven languages used in the Coca-Cola commercial called "It's Beautiful" broadcast during the 2014 Super Bowl.
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