List of Italian inventions
Italy has been the source of many significant inventions. The following inventions and discoveries were made by people that lived in the geographical region of Italy or were made by Italians.
An alphabetical list of Italian inventions
- Galleon invented in the early 16th century by the Venetians and later spread to Iberian Peninsula.
- LARES (satellite) a satellite developed in Italy and launched in 2012.
- Latin alphabet derived from the Greek alphabets became the foundation of many languages worldwide.
- Lazaret (quarantine station) the first was founded by the Republic of Venice in 1403, on a small island in the Venetian lagoon.
- Liposuction, medical procedure invented by Dr Giorgio Fischer in 1974.
- Ocarina a musical instrument invented by Giuseppe Donati
- Opera, the earliest opera composition was Dafne written around 1597 by Jacopo Peri
- Opera House, the first public opera house was the "Teatro San Cassiano" opened in Venice in 1637 and survived until 1800.
- Paddle boat, first designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1490s
- Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service
- Parachute, dates back to the Renaissance Italy
- Personal Computer (in a broad sense, not referring to the modern IBM PC compatible architecture), due to the pioneering work of Pier Giorgio Perotto
- Perspective Linear perspective was first invented by Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi, in Florence, who created a system that helped show how objects shrink in size according to their distance from the eye.
- Piano, a musical instrument invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in 1709.
- Piezoelectric surgery was developed by Tomaso Vercellotti
- Pistol, First handheld guns were created in the city of Pistoia around 1540.
- Pizzeria First established in 1738 as a stand for peddlers, Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba was opened in 1830 in Naples.
- Porro prism invented by Ignazio Porro
- Polypropylene was discovered by Giulio Natta and began to be manufactured in 1957.
- Vespa On 23 April 1946, at 12 o'clock in the central office for inventions, models and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence, Piaggio e C. S.p.A. took out a patent for a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole mechanical part". This design became one of the most popular motoscooters worldwide and is still in production.
- Vibram - Vitale Bramani is credited with inventing the first rubber lug soles for shoes in 1937
- Vibram FiveFingers a type of shoe invented in 1999 by Robert Fliri.
- Violin, four stringed, the name of the inventor is unknown, but the instrument appeared in renaissance Italy.
- Watermark This medieval innovation was first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282.
- Welfare The earliest form of welfare was the lex frumentaria instituted by the tribune Gaius Gracchus dating back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
- Galileo Hydrostatic Weighing Scale it is a weight measuring device that uses hydraulic counterforce of a liquid, usually water or oil, to determine weight of an object under Archimedes' principle. Nowadays is mainly used in hydraulic types of weighbridges. Its functioning principles were first described by Galileo Galilei in 1586.
Other Significant Italian Innovations
Italian Military Innovations
- Air supremacy theorized in 1921 by general Giulio Douhet with the book "The Command of the Air", ("Il Dominio dell'Aria").
- The first use of airplanes in aerial warfare, airstrike, aerial reconnaissance in an actual war occurred in the 1911 Italo-Turkish War with the Italian Army Air Corps conducting reconnaissance missions by airplane and bombing a Turkish camp at Ain Zara, Libya
- Fabian strategy. A guerrilla-warfare strategy first impelemented by Quintus Fabius Maximus "Cunctator" in 217 BC
- Frogmen - The first modern frogmen were the World War II Italian commando frogmen.
- Marine infantry as modern concept of armed troops for defending ships in combat, repel mutinies, and perform organized military landings were created in vicerealm of Naples in 1537, by Spain King Carlos I, Compañías Viejas del Mar de Nápoles, and subsequently in Republic of Venice, Fanti da mar in 1550. Their heritage is keep by italian elite troops San Marco Regiment.
- Mountain warfare with the creation of Alpini troops in 1872.
- The first true paratroop drop was by Italy in November 1927
Italian contributions to music
- 1 2 Ronchi, Vasco (1970). "Amici, Giovan Battista". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 135-137. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
- ↑ Invention of the Meteorological Instruments, W.E. Knowles Middleton, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1969
- ↑ Niccolo' Tartaglia, Nova Scientia, 1537. (a treatise on gunnery and ballistics).
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- ↑ Giuseppe Felloni and Guido Laura, "Genoa and the history of finance: A series of firsts?" 9th November 2004, ISBN 88-87822-16-6
- ↑ Bellis, Mary. Alessandro Volta - Biography of Alessandro Volta - Stored Electricity and the First Battery. About.com. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
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- ↑ Mcnicholas, Kym (November 19, 2010). "Names You Need To Know In 2011: Binishells". forbes.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- ↑ Dante Bini (2009); A cavallo di un soffio d'aria, L'architettura autoformante, Guerini e Associati editore ISBN 88-6250-172-2
- ↑ Bossi, Enea (12 1960). "A man has flown by his own power in 1937". Canadian Aeronautical Journal 6 (10): 395–399
- ↑ Attlee, 2006: 46. The University of Pisa claims that its botanical garden was founded in 1543 and that of Padua, the Orto Botanico di Padova, was founded in 1545, giving them the oldest garden, Attlee, Helena. Italian Gardens - A Cultural History, Francis Lincoln Limited Publishers, 2006
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- ↑ Reti, Ladislao; Di Giorgio Martini, Francesco (Summer 1963). "Francesco di Giorgio (Armani) Martini's Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists". Technology and Culture. 4 (3): 287–298 (290). doi:10.2307/3100858.
- ↑ Podolsky, M. Lawrence (1998) Cures Out of Chaos: How Unexpected Discoveries Led to Breakthroughs in Medicine and Health, Harwood Academic Publishers
- ↑ Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN 0-19-726061-6.
- ↑ The inventions that changed the world, Reader's Digest (1982) [Portuguese edition of 1983]
- ↑ , Olivetti Programma 101 "Perottina", December 18, 2013.
- ↑ "Desk-Top Size Computer Is Being Sold by Olivetti For First Time in US". Wall Street Journal. October 15, 1965.
- ↑ Ronchi, Vasco (1970). "Amici, Giovan Battista". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
- ↑ Larry E. Ashley, Pierce Piano Atlas, 12th edition, Larry E. Ashley Publisher, Albuquerque, NM U.S.A., 2008, p.58.
- ↑ Beckmann, Johann (1846). A History of Inventions, Discoveries, and Origins. Henry G. Bohn. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ↑ Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670–86. PMID 1462166.
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- ↑ Wells, Frederick V.; Billot, Marcel (1981). Perfumery Technology. Art, science, industry. Chichester: Horwood Books. pp. 25, 278. ISBN 0-85312-301-2
- ↑ Mohler, James B. (1969). Electroplating and Related Processes. Chemical Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8206-0037-7.
- ↑ On Contagion, Contagious Diseases and Their Cure (1546) by Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553)
- ↑ "Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia", 2nd Series, Volume 15, Year 1884, pages 635 – 655
- ↑ Pendergrast, Mark (2001) . Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. London: Texere. p. 218. ISBN 1-58799-088-1.
- ↑ "Venice Film Festival". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
- ↑ Archaeology and the Social History of Ships. books.google.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ↑ Treccani, L'Enciclopedia Italiana, Erbario.
- ↑ Massimo Marchiori, "The Quest for Correct Information on the Web: Hyper Search Engines", Proceedings of the Sixth International World Wide Web Conference (WWW6), 1997.
- ↑ Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, "The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine", Proceedings of the Seventh International World Wide Web Conference (WWW7), 1998.
- ↑ Alternating currents of electricity: their generation, measurement, distribution, and application by Gisbert Kapp, William Stanley, Jr.. Johnston, 1893. Page 140. [cf., This direction has been first indicated by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Turin, some six years ago. Quite independent of Ferraris, the same discovery was also made by Nikola Tesla, of New York; and since the practical importance of the discovery has been recognized, quite a host of original discoverers have come forward, each claiming to be the first.]
- ↑ Larned, J. N., & Reiley, A. C. (1901). History for ready reference: From the best historians, biographers, and specialists; their own words in a complete system of history. Springfield, Mass: The C.A. Nichols Co.. Page 440. [cf., At about the same time , Galileo Ferraris, in Italy, and Nikola Tesla, in the United States, brought out motors operating by systems of alternating currents displaced from one another in phase by definite amounts and producing what is known as the rotating magnetic field.]
- ↑ The Electrical engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
- ↑ Galileo Ferraris, "Electromagnetic rotation with an alternating current," Electrican, Vol 36 . pg 360-75.
- ↑ "The History of Alternating Current".
- ↑ Neidhöfer, Gerhard (2007). "Early Three-Phase Power (History)". IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. Vol. 5 no. 5. IEEE Power & Energy Society. pp. 88–100. doi:10.1109/MPE.2007.904752. ISSN 1540-7977.
- ↑ "Two-Phase Induction Motor" (2011), The Case Files: Nikola Tesla, The Franklin Institute.
- ↑ , Encyclopædia Britannica, "Opera (music)".
- ↑ "Paddle Boat". Leonardo da Vinci Exhibit: the Models. Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago). 2006. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- ↑ Homans, Isaac Smith; Dana, William B. (1862). "Recent Italian inventions". Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review. 46. F. Hunt. p. 194. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ↑ , NYT, "Amazing Leonardo da Vinci Inventions".
- ↑ "US Patent and Trademark Office: Patent no. 6695847".
- ↑ Hughes, Holly (8 April 2009). Frommer's 500 Places for Food and Wine Lovers. John Wiley & Sons. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-470-48064-9. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ↑ Bergin, Thomas Goddard; Speake, Jennifer (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation. Facts on File, Incorporated. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4381-1026-4. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- ↑ Gene therapy. Italians first to use stem cells. Abbott A. Nature. 9 April 1992;356(6369):465
- ↑ J. John Lighton Synge; Alfred Schild (1978). Tensor Calculus. Courier Dover Publications. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-486-14139-8.
- ↑ "Triumphal arch." Encyclopædia Britannica (2010)
- ↑ Tinazzi, Massimo (1996). "Perpetual Electromotive of Giuseppe Zamboni". Retrieved 2008-01-18.
- ↑ C.E.H. Bawn (1979). "Giulio Natta, 1903—1979". Nature. 280 (5724): 707. doi:10.1038/280707a0.
- ↑ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission:Aviation at the Start of the First World War
- ↑ Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Fall of Carthage. p. 151. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.