Loup language

Pronunciation [lu]
Native to United States
Region Massachusetts, Connecticut
Ethnicity Nipmuck?
Extinct 18th century
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
xlo  Loup A
xlb  Loup B
Linguist list
xlo Loup A
  xlb Loup B
Glottolog loup1243  (Loup A)[1]

Loup is an extinct Algonquian language, or possibly group of languages, spoken in colonial New England. Loup ("Wolf") was a French colonial ethnographic term, and usage was inconsistent. In modern literature, it refers to two varieties, Loup A and Loup B.[2]


Chaubunagungamaug lake sign, in Nipmuk and English

Loup A, which may be the language of the Nipmuck, is principally attested from a word list recorded from refugees by the St. Francis mission to the Abenaki in Quebec. The descendants of these refugees became speakers of Western Abenaki in the eighteenth century. Loup B refers to a second word list, which shows extensive dialectal variation. This may not be a distinct language, but just notes on the speech of various New England Algonquian refugees in French missions.[3]


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Loup A". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Goddard, Ives (To appear). "The 'Loup' Languages of Western Massachusetts: The Dialectal Diversity of Southern New England Algonquian.". Papers of the 44th Algonquian Conference. SUNY Press: 104–138. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. Victor Golla, 2007. Atlas of the World's Languages

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