|Native to||United States|
|Region||Colusa, Lake, Napa, Solano, and Yolo Counties, northern California|
|1 (as of 2003)|
Patwin (Patween) is a critically endangered Wintuan language of Northern California. As of 2011, there was "at least one first language speaker of Patwin." As of 2010, Patwin language classes were taught at the Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation (formerly Rumsey Rancheria) tribal school (Dubin 2010).
Patwin has two (excl. Southern Patwin) or three (incl. Southern Patwin) dialects: "River Patwin (or Valley Patwin) was traditionally spoken along the Sacramento River in Colusa County ... Hill Patwin, was spoken in the plains and foothills to the west."
Southern Patwin became extinct shortly after contact. It is very poorly attested, and may be a separate Southern Wintuan language (Mithun 1999).
Patwin has 24 consonant phonemes. In the table below, the IPA form(s) of each consonant are given. This is followed by the form commonly used in published Patwin linguistics literature, if this is different from the IPA form.
|Fricative||s||ɬ ~ t͡ɬ ⟨ƚ⟩||h|
|ejective||t͡ɬʼ ⟨ƛʼ⟩||t͡ʃʼ ⟨čʼ⟩|
|Trill/Flap||r̥ ~ ɾ ⟨r⟩|
- /ʔ/ is a marginal phoneme, occurring exclusively at morpheme boundaries. Its distribution is not entirely predictable, however.
- Ejective and aspirated consonants occur only syllable-initially.
- Some or all of the "alveolar" consonants (both central and lateral) would be more accurately described as being retracted alveolar consonants.
Patwin has 10 vowels:
|High (close)||i||u||iː ⟨i·⟩||uː ⟨u·⟩|
|Mid||e||o||eː ⟨e·⟩||oː ⟨o·⟩|
|Low (open)||a||aː ⟨a·⟩|
- Patwin vowels have a simple length distinction (short vs. long).
- All vowels are voiced and oral.
- Golla, Victor (2011). California Indian languages. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26667-4.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Patwin". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Patwin – Survey of California and Other Indian Languages". Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Quail Ridge Reserve - Human History Patwin". Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Cultural Resources – Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation". Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- Dubin, Margaret. "'Pass me that squirrel, toss me my iPod': Language learning at the Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation." News From Native California 23 (3), 2010.
- Lawyer, Lewis. 2015. "Patwin Phonemics, Phonetics, and Phonotactics". International Journal of American Linguistics. 81 (2). 221—260
- Mithun, Marianne, ed. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
- California Language Archive: Patwin
- World Atlas of Language Structures: Patwin
- CILC Patwin ethnographic and linguistic bibliography
- Patwin language bibliography
- Map showing Patwin dialect groups
- OLAC Patwin resources, on Wintu page